Clusters of Expo 2015: fruit and vegetables
Fruit and vegetables are one of the clusters identified by the organizers of Expo 2015, which will take place in Milan.
Discover our stand at Cersaie 2014 and the photographs of the event Tiles & Food Novoceram inspired by this topic.
Presentation of some fruits
Fruits are vegetal organs of a tree or a plant that protect one or more seeds.
The fruit is transformed from a flower pollinated by an insect or by the wind.
There are different types of fruits: berries (such as orange, avocado, tomato, grape) and drupes (such as plum, olive, peach, cherry).
The word « orange » comes from the Arabic ‘narandj. »
It is the fourth most cultivated fruit in the world. Top producers are Brazil and the United States, Florida in particular. At a global level, the orange-growing industry represents $ 2 billions. The production per second is estimated at 2105 kg of oranges, 66.4 million tons per year. Among these, 30 million are intended for the production of orange juice.
Originally, the orange comes from China and until the beginning of the twentieth century it was considered a luxury item.
The peach and the nectarine are two varieties of the same species. The differences between the two are at the level of the skin (smooth or hairy), the pulp color (yellow or white) and the type of core (attached or not). Nectarines have a smooth skin. It is possible to find the two varieties on the same tree.
The peach tree has been domesticated for the first time in China. Later it spread to India, in the Near East and then Alexander the Great has contributed to its spread into Europe.
In France (the fourth largest producer of peaches in Europe), the Languedoc-Roussillon is the leading producing region, followed by the Rhone-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Cote d’Azur. These three regions produce respectively 44%, 33% and 15% of the French market.
The world leading producer is China.
Worldwide production of peaches is estimated at 643 kg per second, equivalent to 20.3 tons per year.
The watermelon is a climbing plant that can measure up to 3 meters long. Its cultivation dates back to ancient Egypt but it had spread around the Mediterranean Sea and in other hot countries.
The fruit can weigh between 5 and 20 kg depending on the variety and it is made up for 92% of water.
3 tons of watermelon are produced every second in the world (95 million tons per year).
China is the largest producer of this fruit with an annual production of 6 million tons (about 70% of world production).
© ppdiaporama https://www.flickr.com/photos/ppdiaporama/8732333861
Its name comes from the Latin ‘Pira’. The most important producers of pears are China, Italy, Russia and the United States. France is the third producer in Europe, with 174 000 tonnes of pears a year, behind Italy that produces 737 000 tons and Spain that produces 473 000 tons. About 22.7 million tons of pears are produced worldwide each year.
It is the third most consumed fruit in the world and it is consumed by humans since the Neolithic Age. Originally this fruit comes from the highland region of Central Asia and it has arrived in Europe via the Silk Road. World production of apples is 64 billion pounds a year and China is the leading producer.
The word avocado comes from the Spanish « avocado » which means « testicle » from the shape of this fruit. The avocado is native to Mexico and was already consumed 8,000 years ago and it was then imported by the Spaniards in the eighteenth century.
The production of avocado in the world is about 3.1 million tons per year. Mexico is the first producer, followed by Chile, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia and Colombia, while the largest scales the consumer are the United States.
Papaya is a tree originating in Mexico. Its fruit is a berry that measures between 21 and 31 cm. Through an incision on green fruits it is possible also to obtain latex.
The worldwide production of this fruit is 12 million tons. India is the largest producer, followed by Brazil and Indonesia.
The pomegranate is native to the region between West Asia and East Asia. The leading producers of pomegranate are Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Iran, Afghanistan and India.
The name kiwi is a trademark registered in 1970 by a New Zealand company.
Kiwis are the fruits of a kind of vine native to China.
The annual production of this fruit is 2.2 million tons. China and Italy are the top producers. France is in fifth place.
The surface dedicated to the culture of kiwi in the world covers 140 000 hectares.
Legumes: a short presentation
Legumes are seeds that generally occur in a pod and they are the first kind of plant mankind has been able to cultivate.
Peanuts too are usually considered as legumes.
Soybeans, peanuts, peas, beans, beans and lentils are the most cultivated kinds of leguminous crops in the world.
Lentils are an annual plant. The fruits are pods enclosing round and flat seeds.
These legumes are very popular in Europe, but world production is quite low: 2.8 million tons per year.
Canada is the world’s largest producer with 1.5 million tons and is the world’s leading exporter, followed by the United States, Australia and Turkey. These countries account for 90% of world production. Among the exported lentils, 75% are pink lentils, 20% are green lentils and 5% belongs to other categories.
2-b/ Dried beans
Kidney beans represent 95% of world production of dry beans.
Canada is the third largest exporter of dry beans. In 2009 the production of beans was about 20 million tons.
Beans are native to the Andes and they have spread particularly in Central and East Africa.
The soy plant is from the Far East and it appears in several varieties.
The stems may have a length of 30-130 cm and its fruits are hairy pods of 3-8 cm in length that generally contain 3-4 seeds.
The main producers of soy are the United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and India.
World production is around 7.9 million tons per year and the main producers are India, Turkey, Pakistan, Canada, Mexico and Australia.